Here is an illustration of the process of manufacturing a silicon chip. Along the lines we will present some of the terms used in processor and processor manufacturing. Most of the material has been taken from Intel’s 32 nm technology but the idea presented applies to most of the modern silicon manufacturing process.
With about 25% (mass) Silicon is -after Oxygen -the second most frequent chemical element in the earth’s crust. Sand -especially Quartz -has high percentages of Silicon in the form of Silicon dioxide (SiO2) and is the base ingredient for semiconductor manufacturing.
Silicon is purified in multiple steps to finally reach semiconductor manufacturing quality which is called Electronic Grade Silicon. Electronic Grade Silicon may only have one alien atom every one billion Silicon atoms. In this picture you can see how one big crystal is grown from the purified silicon melt. The resulting mono crystal is called an Ingot.
An ingot has been produced from Electronic Grade Silicon. One ingot weights about 100 kilograms (=220 pounds) and has a Silicon purity of 99.9999999%